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Choline Insulin Diabetes
  1. #1
    ironjustice Guest

    Default Choline Insulin Diabetes

    Just a reminder ..

    "It was the choline that kept the dogs alive"

    Peripheral administration of CDP-choline and its cholinergic
    metabolites increases serum insulin: muscarinic and nicotinic
    acetylcholine receptors are both involved in their actions.
    Ilcol YO, Cansev M, Yilmaz MS, Hamurtekin E, Ulus IH.
    Neurosci Lett. 2008 Jan 24;431(1):71-6. Epub 2007 Dec 4.
    Department of Biochemistry, Uludag University Medical School,
    Bursa 16059, Turkey. [email protected]

    Abstract
    The present study was designed to test the effects of CDP-choline
    and its metabolites on serum insulin concentrations in rats and
    to investigate the involvements of cholinergic and adrenergic
    receptors in the effect.
    Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of CDP-choline (200-600
    micromol/kg) increased serum insulin in a dose- and time-related
    manner.
    Equivalent doses (200-600 micromol/kg; i.p.) of phosphocholine
    or choline also increased serum insulin dose-dependently.
    Serum-free choline concentrations increased several-fold
    following i.p. administration of CDP-choline, phosphocholine or
    choline itself.
    In contrast, equivalent doses of cytidine monophosphate and
    cytidine failed to alter serum insulin concentrations.
    The increases in serum insulin induced by i.p. 600 micromol/kg
    of CDP-choline, phosphocholine or choline were abolished by
    pretreatment with the ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
    antagonist hexamethonium (15 mg/kg; i.p.), or by the muscarinic
    receptor antagonist atropine methylnitrate (2 mg/kg; i.p.).
    Pretreatment with prazosin (0.5 mg/kg; i.p.), an alpha
    (1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, or yohimbine (5 mg/kg, i.p.),
    an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, enhanced slightly the
    increases in serum insulin in response to 600 micromol/kg of
    CDP-choline, phosphocholine and choline.
    Serum insulin also increased following central administration
    of choline; the effect was blocked by intracerebroventricularly
    injected atropine, mecamylamine or hemicholinium-3 (HC-3).
    It is concluded that CDP-choline or its cholinergic metabolites
    phosphocholine and choline increases circulating insulin
    concentrations by increasing muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic
    neurotransmission in the insulin secreting beta-cells.

    PMID: 18162319

    ----------

    Choline increases serum insulin in rat when injected
    intraperitoneally and augments basal and stimulated
    aceylcholine release from the rat minced pancreas in vitro.
    Ilcol YO, Gurun MS, Taga Y, Ulus IH.
    Eur J Biochem. 2003 Mar;270(5):991-9.
    Department of Biochemistry, Uludag University Medical School,
    16059 Gorukle Kampusu, Bursa, Turkey. [email protected]

    Abstract
    Intraperitoneal injection of choline (30-90 mg.kg-1)
    produced a dose-dependent increase in serum insulin,
    glucose and choline levels in rats.
    The increase in serum insulin induced by choline
    (90 mg.kg-1) was blocked by pretreatment with the
    muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists,
    atropine (2 mg.kg-1), pirenzepine (2 mg.kg-1) and
    4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (2 mg.kg-1)
    or the ganglionic nicotinic receptor antagonist,
    hexamethonium (15 mg.kg-1).
    The effect of choline on serum insulin and glucose
    was enhanced by oral glucose administration (3 g.kg-1).
    Choline administration was associated with a
    significant (P < 0.001) increase in the acetylcholine
    content of pancreatic tissue.
    Choline (10-130 microm) increased basal and stimulated
    acetylcholine release but failed to evoke insulin
    release from the minced pancreas at considerably higher
    concentrations (0.1-10 mm).
    Hemicholium-3, a choline uptake inhibitor, attenuated
    the increase in acetylcholine release induced by
    choline augmentation.
    Choline (1-32 mm) inhibited [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate
    binding to the muscarinic receptors in the pancreatic
    homogenates.
    These data show that choline, a precursor of the
    neurotransmitter acetylcholine, increases serum insulin
    by indirectly stimulating peripheral acetylcholine
    receptors through the enhancement of acetylcholine
    synthesis and release.

    PMID: 12603332
    ----------

    Lecithin is recommended as a BETTER method of choline supplementation
    due to its ability to produce a 5 times increase of choline and a
    retention time of 3 times as many hours.


    Lecithin consumption raises serum-free-choline levels.
    Lancet 1977 Jul 9;2(8028):68-9
    Wurtman RJ, Hirsch MJ, Growdon JH.


    Consumption of choline by rats sequentially increases
    serum-choline, brain-choline, and brain-acetylcholine
    concentrations.
    In man consumption of choline increases in levels in the
    serum and cerebrospinal fluid; its administration is an
    effective way of treating tardive dyskinesia.
    We found that oral lecithin is considerably more effective in
    raising human serum-choline levels than an equivalent quantity
    of choline chloride.
    30 minutes after ingestion of choline chloride (2-3 g free base),
    serum- choline levels rose by 86% and returned to normal values
    within 4 hours; 1 hour after lecithin ingestion, these levels rose
    by 265% and remained significantly raised for 12 hours.
    Lecithin may therefore be the method of choice for accelerating
    acetylcholine synthesis by increasing the availability of choline,
    its precursor in the blood.


    ----------------

    http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/...5/timeline.asp

    A new vitamin that is essential for liver function and that may play
    an important role in controlling diabetes was described at the
    meeting of the American and Canadian Medical Associations by one of
    its
    discoverers, Dr. C.H. Best of Toronto, codiscoverer of insulin, the
    life-saving remedy for diabetes.
    The new vitamin has a real name, choline, instead of a letter, as do
    most other members of the vitamin family. It is found in many foods,
    but the best sources are meat, egg yolk, and yeast.

    Dr. M. Hershey and Miss M.E. Huntsman, of the University of Toronto,
    were responsible for many of the fundamental observations that led up
    to the discovery of the significance of choline, Dr. Best stated.

    Lack of this vitamin causes the serious condition of fatty liver, Dr.
    Best said. When the liver becomes fatty, it fails to make sugar or
    handle bile or do many of the things it should do, he explained.

    The vitamin was discovered in the course of insulin investigations.
    Dogs that had no pancreas, the insulin-secreting organ, failed to
    live for more than a few months, even when given insulin injections.
    When they were fed minced pancreas, in addition to the insulin, they
    lived for years.

    However, chemical studies of the pancreas showed that in addition to
    producing insulin and a digestive ferment, this organ contained
    choline, and that it was the choline in the diet of minced pancreas
    that kept the dogs alive after they had lost their own pancreases.

    -------------------------------------------

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  2. #2
    [email protected] Guest

    Default Re: Choline Insulin Diabetes

    "Just a reminder ..

    "It was the choline that kept the dogs alive""

    The abstract was about a synthetic form of it. Better to eat the foods
    having it:

    The Adequate Intake of choline is 425 mg (milligrams) per day for
    adult women; higher for pregnant and lactating women. The AI for
    adult
    men is 550 mg/day. There are also AIs for children and teens.^[6]
    Choline and calories in some animal and plant foods
    5 ounces (142 g) raw beef liver 473 mg choline 192 calories^[nb 1]
    Large hardboiled egg 113 mg choline 78 calories^[nb 2]
    Half a pound (227 g) codfish 190 mg choline 238 calories^[nb 3]
    Half a pound of chicken 149 mg choline 270 calories^[nb 4]
    Quart of milk, 1% fat 173 mg choline 410 calories^[nb 5]
    A tablespoon (8 g) soy lecithin About 250 mg choline 60 calories^[7]
    A pound (454 grams) of cauliflower 177 mg choline 104 calories ^[nb
    6]
    A pound of spinach 113 mg choline 154 calories^[nb 7]
    A cup of wheat germ 202 mg choline 432 calories^[nb 8]
    Two cups (0.47 liters) firm tofu 142 mg choline 353 calories^[nb 9]
    Two cups of cooked kidney beans 108 mg choline 450 calories. ^[nb 10]
    A cup of uncooked quinoa 119 mg choline 626 calories. ^[nb 11]
    A cup of uncooked amaranth 135 mg choline 716 calories ^[nb 12]
    A grapefruit 19 mg choline 103 calories^[nb 13]
    3 cups (710 cc) cooked brown rice 54 mg choline 649 calories ^[nb 14]
    A cup (146 g) of peanuts 77 mg choline 828 calories ^[nb 15]
    A cup (143 g) of almonds 74 mg choline 822 calories ^[nb 16]

    Besides cauliflower, other cruciferous vegetables may also be good
    sources of choline.^[8]

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