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How Obesity Increases The Risk For Diabetes
  1. #1
    Potter Guest

    Default How Obesity Increases The Risk For Diabetes

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0621143236.htm

    How Obesity Increases The Risk For Diabetes

    ScienceDaily (June 22, 2009) — Obesity is probably the most important
    factor in the development of insulin resistance, but science's
    understanding of the chain of events is still spotty. Now, researchers at
    the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have filled in the gap and
    identified the missing link between the two. Their findings, to be
    published in the June 21, 2009 advance online edition of the journal
    Nature, explain how obesity sets the stage for diabetes and why thin people
    can become insulin-resistant.

    The Salk team, led by Marc Montminy, Ph.D., a professor in the Clayton
    Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, discovered how a condition
    known as ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress, which is induced by a high fat
    diet and is overly activated in obese people, triggers aberrant glucose
    production in the liver, an important step on the path to insulin
    resistance.

    In healthy people, a "fasting switch" only flips on glucose production when
    blood glucose levels run low during fasting. "The existence of a second
    cellular signaling cascade—like an alternate route from A to B—that can
    modulate glucose production, presents the potential to identify new classes
    of drugs that might help to lower blood sugar by disrupting this
    alternative pathway," says Montminy.

    It had been well established that obesity promotes insulin resistance
    through the inappropriate inactivation of a process called gluconeogenesis,
    where the liver creates glucose for fuel and which ordinarily occurs only
    in times of fasting. Yet, not all obese people become insulin resistant,
    and insulin resistance occurs in non-obese individuals, leading Montminy
    and his colleagues to suspect that fasting-induced glucose production was
    only half the story.

    "When a cell starts to sense stress a red light goes on, which slows down
    the production of proteins," explains Montminy. "This process, which is
    known as ER stress response, is abnormally active in livers of obese
    individuals, where it contributes to the development of hyperglycemia, or
    high blood glucose levels. We asked whether chronic ER stress in obesity
    leads to abnormal activation of the fasting switch that normally controls
    glucose production in the liver." The ER, short for endoplasmic reticulum,
    is a protein factory within the cell.

    To test this hypothesis the Salk team asked whether ER stress can induce
    gluconeogenesis in lean mice. Glucose production is turned on by a
    transcriptional switch called CRTC2, which normally sits outside the
    nucleus waiting for the signal that allows it to slip inside and do its
    work. Once in the nucleus, it teams up with a protein called CREB and
    together they switch on the genes necessary to increase glucose output. In
    insulin-resistant mice, however, the CRTC2 switch seems to get stuck in the
    "on" position and the cells start churning out glucose like sugar factories
    in overdrive.

    Surprisingly, when postdoctoral researcher and first author Yiguo Wang,
    Ph.D., mimicked the conditions of ER stress in mice, CRTC2 moved to the
    nucleus but failed to activate gluconeogenesis. Instead, it switched on
    genes important for combating stress and returning cells to health. On
    closer inspection, Wang found that in this scenario CRTC2 did not bind to
    CREB but instead joined forces with another factor, called ATF6a.

    What's more, like jealous lovers CREB and ATF6a competing for CRTC2's
    affection—the more ATF6a is bound to CRTC2, the less there is for CREB to
    bind to. "This clever mechanism ensures that a cell in survival mode
    automatically shuts down glucose production, thus saving energy," says
    Wang.

    This observation led the researcher to ask what happens to ATF6a following
    the kind of persistent stress presented by obesity? They found that the
    levels of ATF6a go down when ER stress is chronically activated,
    compromising the cells' survival pathway and favoring the glucose
    production pathway; hyperglycemia wins in conditions of persistent stress.

    Explains Wang, "Our study helps to explain why obese people have a stronger
    tendency to become diabetic. When ER stress signaling is abnormal glucose
    output is actually increased."

    "It is possible that mutations in the highly conserved CRTC2 lead to a
    predisposition to inappropriate gluconeogenesis," says Montminy, who is now
    trying to identify natural mutations in CRTC2 that may lead to insulin
    resistance in carriers.

    In addition to Drs. Wang and Montminy, researchers contributing to this
    study include research technician Liliana Vera, and Wolfgang H. Fischer,
    Ph.D., director of the Mass Spectrometry Core Facility.

    The work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health,
    the Clayton Foundation for Medical Research, the Kiekhefer Foundation and
    the Vincent J. Coates Foundation.



  2. #2
    Andrew B. Chung, MD/PhD Guest

    Default Re: How Obesity Increases The Risk For Diabetes

    Potter wrote:
    >
    > http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0621143236.htm
    >
    > How Obesity Increases The Risk For Diabetes
    >
    > ScienceDaily (June 22, 2009) � Obesity is probably the most important
    > factor in the development of insulin resistance, but science's
    > understanding of the chain of events is still spotty. Now, researchers at
    > the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have filled in the gap and
    > identified the missing link between the two. Their findings, to be
    > published in the June 21, 2009 advance online edition of the journal
    > Nature, explain how obesity sets the stage for diabetes and why thin people
    > can become insulin-resistant.
    >
    > The Salk team, led by Marc Montminy, Ph.D., a professor in the Clayton
    > Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, discovered how a condition
    > known as ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress, which is induced by a high fat
    > diet and is overly activated in obese people, triggers aberrant glucose
    > production in the liver, an important step on the path to insulin
    > resistance.


    Actually ER stress is induced simply by eating more than needed.

    Therefore, it remains wise to eat less, down to the right amount in
    order to lose the VAT thereby curing the insulin resistance (IR/MetS)
    and possibly also be cured of the type-2 diabetes:

    http://groups.google.com/group/sci.m...2aafa0aad16eb?

    Be hungrier, which is truly healthier for mind, body, and soul:

    http://groups.google.com/group/sci.m...d4e30704307e7?

    Love in the truth,

    Andrew <><
    --
    Author of WDJW:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/What_does_Jesus_want%3F

    "... no one can say 'Jesus is LORD' except by the Holy Spirit." (1 Cor
    12:3)
    http://groups.google.com/group/sci.m...c93540862751c?

    What are the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven?
    http://groups.google.com/group/sci.m...b41e6999de315?

    Only the truth can cure the "hunger is starvation" delusion:
    http://groups.google.com/group/sci.m...81ab7d7ce78de?

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