Re: Dopamine Theory Aberrant Behavior.
Re: Dopamine Theory Aberrant Behavior.
On Sat, 17 Jan 2009 02:03:14 -0800 (PST), "[email protected]"
<[email protected]> wrote:
>"Multiple addictive, impulsive and compulsive behavioral propensities,
>such as severe alcoholism,cocaine, heroin, marijuana and nicotine use,
>glucose bingeing, pathological gambling, sex addiction, ADHD,
>autism, chronic violence, posttraumatic stress disorder,
>schizoid/avoidant cluster, conduct disorder and antisocial
>This article clearly shows in the plant .. maltol a sugar .. is
>ESSENTIAL for the breakdown of dopamine .. it keeps the dopamine
>THERE .. / prevents the breakdown.
>Effect of maltol on the oxidation of DL-DOPA, dopamine, N-
>acetyldopamine (NADA), and norepinephrine by mushroom tyrosinase.
>Pigment Cell Res. 1997 Jun;10(3):139-49.
>Kahn V, Ben-Shalom N.
>Department of Food Science, Agricultural Research Organization,
>Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.
>Maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) appears to inhibit the rate
>of oxidation of DL-DOPA, dopamine, NADA and epinephrine by tyrosinase
>when assayed spectrophotometrically but not when assayed
>Maltol has an effect on the spectrum of product(s) formed when each
>catecholamine was oxidized by tyrosinase showing that maltol hastens
>the disappearance of the quinones, possibly by conjugating with them.
>Indeed, at relatively high concentrations, maltol prevented the
>conversion of DL-DOPA, dopamine, and norepinephrine to their
>corresponding melanins via tyrosinase.
>PMID: : 9266600
>'Dopamine theory' states it might be
>useful to attempt to DO what the successful drugs
>have been shown to do.
>Raise dopamine levels in the brain?
>Or utilize the dopamine we produce .. or both?
>Dopamine Extinguishes Smoking
>Drug dulls desire for cigarettes, study finds
>WEDNESDAY, Sept 4 (HealthScoutNews) -- Medicine that mimics increased
>levels of the brain chemical dopamine could help extinguish a
>smoker's desire for cigarettes.
>That's the finding of a study, appearing in the September issue of
>Nicotine and Tobacco Research, that focused on 20 heavy smokers.
>They were given drugs that either increased or decreased their
>brain's dopamine levels. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that affects
>motor function and is believed to affect emotion.
>Animal studies show nicotine causes dopamine release in brain areas
>linked to feelings of pleasure.
>This new study found that when the smokers were given the dopamine-
>mimicking drug bromocriptine, they smoked less than when given a drug
>that impedes the effects of dopamine.
>Bromocriptine is used to treat Parkinson's disease, some tumors and
>"Overall, these results imply that smoking behavior can be
>manipulated within the same subjects in opposite directions by
>alternately stimulating and blocking dopamine, which strongly
>suggests the importance of dopamine in reinforcement from cigarette
>smoking," says lead researcher Nicholas H. Caskey, of the Veterans
>Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System and the Neuropsychiatric
>Institute at UCLA's David Geffen School of Medicine.
>DG DISPATCH - AACAP: Nicotine Patches Improve Adult AD/HD Symptoms
>So anything which raises your dopamine seems to be in order?
>Phytol / inositol / sugar or .. maltol / sugar.
>In India they have shown a very high rate of cure with simple
>The phytol / inositol / sugar / iron chelator in THAT / vegetable
>lecithin treatment ..
>As opposed to maltol / sugar / iron chelator shown to raise dopamine
>in man .. ?
>One might wonder whether phytol has been shown to raise dopamine in
>These sugars phytol and maltol are found in any health food store and
>also plants .. fruits and vegetables.
>IP6 / phytol / inositol is a natural iron chelating sugar found in any
>health food store or from food 'bran' and in vegetable lecithin .
>Maltol is an iron chelating sugar found in any health food store or
>your food ..
>This article shows what happens when iron is involved in the mouse
>Maltol is a hydroxypyridone a sugar natural iron binder.
>"Hydroxypyridone influenced dopamine metabolism"
>"Causes significant variations in dopamine turnover"
>Brain iron in the ferrocene-loaded rat: its chelation and influence
>on dopamine metabolism.
>Biochem Pharmacol 1995 Jun 16;49(12):1821-6
>Ward RJ, Dexter D, Florence A, Aouad F, Hider R, Jenner P, Crichton
>Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Kings College, London, U.K.
>After administration of the ferrocene derivative 3,5,5-trimethyl
>hexanoyl ferrocene to rats for 4 weeks various brain regions
>including substantia nigra, cerebellum and cerebral cortex showed
>up to 50% increase in iron content.
>Subsequent administration of one of the hydroxypyridones CP20, CP24
>and CP94, or the siderophore desferrioxamine caused a significant
>decrease in the iron content of these various brain regions.
>Each of the hydroxypyridones and the siderophore influenced
>dopamine metabolism by causing significant variations in both
>homovanillic acid and dopamine turnover.
>Reward deficiency syndrome: a biogenetic model for the diagnosis and
>treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors.
>J Psychoactive Drugs 2000 Nov;32 Suppl:i-iv, 1-112
>Blum K, Braverman ER, Holder JM, Lubar JF, Monastra VJ, Miller D,
>Lubar JO, Chen TJ, Comings DE
>Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas,
>Denton, Texas, USA.
>The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2
>receptor, has been implicated in reward mechanisms.
>The net effect of neurotransmitter interaction at the mesolimbic
>brain region induces "reward" when dopamine (DA) is released
>from the neuron at the nucleus accumbens and interacts with
>a dopamine D2 receptor.
>"The reward cascade" involves the release of serotonin, which
>in turn at the hypothalmus stimulates enkephalin, which in turn
>inhibits GABA at the substania nigra, which in turn fine tunes the
>amount of DA released at the nucleus accumbens or "reward site."
>It is well known that under normal conditions in the reward site DA
>works to maintain our normal drives.
>In fact, DA has become to be known as the "pleasure molecule"
>and/or the "antistress molecule."
>When DA is released into the synapse, it stimulates a number a DA
>receptors (D1-D5) which results in increased feelings of well-being
>and stress reduction.
>A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a
>dysfunction in the brain reward cascade, which could be caused by
>certain genetic variants (polygenic), especially in the DA system
>causing a hypodopaminergic trait, the brain of that person requires a
>DA fix to feel good.
>This trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behavior.
>This is so because alcohol, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, nicotine,
>and glucose all cause activation and neuronal release of brain DA,
>which could heal the abnormal cravings.
>Certainly after ten years of study we could say with confidence that
>carriers of the DAD2 receptor A1 allele have compromised D2
>Therefore lack of D2 receptors causes individuals to have a high risk
>for multiple addictive, impulsive and compulsive behavioral
>propensities, such as severe alcoholism, cocaine,heroin,marijuana and
>nicotine use, glucose bingeing, pathological gambling, sex addiction,
>ADHD, Tourette's Syndrome, autism, chronic violence, posttraumatic
>stress disorder, schizoid/avoidant cluster, conduct disorder and
>In order to explain the breakdown of the reward cascade due to
>both multiple genes and environmental stimuli (pleiotropism) and
>resultant aberrant behaviors, Blum united this hypodopaminergic trait
>under the rubric of a reward deficiency syndrome.
>PMID: 11280926, UI: 21177392
>Who loves ya.
>Jesus Was A Vegetarian!
>Man Is A Herbivore!
>DEAD PEOPLE WALKING
An informative article.
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